Personal Information

Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Until it was amended in the Criminal Code contained the offence of rape. The offence required proof that a man had sexual intercourse with a woman other than his wife without the woman’s consent. It was punishable by up to life imprisonment. The offence of rape, perhaps more than any other offence, demonstrated the tensions arising in CRIMINAL LAW from conflicting principles: the presumption of innocence and thus, the requirement that the Crown prove all of the elements of the offence beyond a reasonable doubt and the need to protect potential victims and to punish offenders. The emotional and traumatic nature of the trial which might include cross-examination of the complainant about her prior sexual conduct with the accused and others , aggravated by the feelings of shame and degradation suffered by a rape victim, may contribute to the fact that rape is an underreported crime. Sometimes the accused is a “friend” or relative, which leads to the imposition of even greater pressure upon the complainant. With the passing of Bill C, Parliament has abolished the offence of rape, replacing it with the offences of sexual assault. A major purpose of the change was to emphasize that the offence, although sexually related, was essentially a crime of violence, mostly against women.

Research publications

Sexual violence is a term that encompasses any form of unwanted sexual contact, attempt to obtain a sexual act, non-consensual sexual activity, unwanted sexual comments or advances and non-contact sexual experiences that happen without freely and enthusiastically given consent. You may have heard the following terms: sexual assault, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment. These are all forms of sexual violence and they affect individuals, families and communities from every area and all walks of life in our province.

Sexual violence are crimes of power and control, not about sex itself. Child Sexual Abuse is when an adult, adolescent or older child uses a younger child or youth for his or her own sexual gratification.

Law not affected. (2) Subject to section 3, this Part does not affect the law relating to giving or refusing consent to anything not included in the definition.

Sexual assault and harassment are persistent forms of gender-based violence that are rooted in gender inequality. In fact, sexual assault is the only violent crime in Canada that is not declining. Its impact goes far beyond survivors; dealing with the aftermath of sexual assault costs Canadians billions of dollars every year. Listen on Spotify or here. This fact page answers some frequently asked questions about sexual assault and harassment in Canada.

For more information about other forms of gender-based violence, consult:. Sexual assault is the only violent crime in Canada that is not declining. Since , rates of sexual assault have remained relatively unchanged. While the rate of sexual assault has remained stable, rates of robbery and physical assault have gone down, and men are more likely to be the victims of these crimes.

The impact of sexual assault goes far beyond direct victims. Each year, sexual assault costs Canadian society billions of dollars.

Age of consent for sexual activity in Canada

Human trafficking is one of the most heinous crimes imaginable, often described as modern-day slavery. This crime robs its victims of their most basic human rights and is occurring in Canada and worldwide. The victims, who are mostly women and children, are deprived of their normal lives and compelled to provide their labour or sexual services, through a variety of coercive practices all for the direct profit of their perpetrators.

of 2. SC ISP () E. Service. Canada. PROTECTED B (when completed) your Canada Pension Plan (CPP) and Old Age Security (OAS) benefits. It I hereby give my consent for Service Canada to communicate personal.

To help protect youth from sexual predators and to fight child sexual exploitation, which has become increasingly prominent in the age of the Internet, the Government of Canada has passed new legislation increasing the age of consent for sexual activity. From until recently, the age at which a youth could consent to nonexploitative sexual activity was 14 years 1.

With the recent change to the criminal code of Canada, the age of consent for nonexploitative sexual activity is now 16 years. Nonexploitative activity is defined as sexual activity that does not involve prostitution or pornography, and where there is no relationship of trust, authority or dependency between the persons involved 1. A coach, spiritual leader, teacher, school principal, guidance counsellor or family member are all examples of persons in a position of trust or authority with youth.

For exploitative sexual activity prostitution or pornography, or where there is a relationship of trust, authority or dependency , the age of consent is 18 years. The spirit of the new legislation is not to regulate consensual teenage sexual activity. To this effect, there are a few notable exceptions to the law:. Youth 12 or 13 years of age can consent to nonexploitative sexual activity with peers when the age difference is no more than two years.

Laws, Regulations and Guidelines in Health Care

The lower court ruled that the laws were unconstitutional. The case went to the Ontario Court of Appeal for review and it agreed that some, but not all, of these laws needed to change. On December 20 , the Supreme Court of Canada released its decision that the challenged provisions of the Criminal Code regarding prostitution were unconstitutional. In response, the government made new laws that were passed in November Sex work can include prostitution and other activities such as exotic dancing, phone sex lines and pornography.

This article uses the term sex work to respect the dignity and human rights of sex workers.

So far, 30 countries and territories have enacted national laws allowing gays are free to choose independently to start a family in keeping with their sexual orientation Since the beginning of , several anti-gay marriage protests with Same-sex couples in Canada gained most of the legal benefits of.

October 11, by Kayleigh Williams. This summary of age discrimination law in Canada has been prepared by Mathews Dinsdale, the Ius Laboris member for Canada: www. All jurisdictions in Canada — ten provinces and three territories — have legislation designed to ensure the equality of its peoples. Additionally, the federal government legislates in respect of industries considered to be federal undertakings. Section 15 1 of the Charter contains an equality clause, which provides as follows:.

Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability emphasis added. The federal government and all provinces and territories have anti-discriminatory measures against age.

Age of consent reform in Canada

You’re using an outdated browser. This website will not display correctly and some features will not work. Learn more about the browsers we support for a faster and safer online experience. Last amendment: , c. Legislative History: , c. Consent to Treatment.

Legal age limits for leaving children alone at home or in a vehicle in Canada Indeed, in provinces with a statutory age limit, sometimes the courts 4 For example, in Quebec, see Protection de la Jeunesse – , QQCQ ;​.

The late Robert J. Van Kessel, B. His practice specialty involved insolvency and commercial litigation matters. Robert wrote prolifically, contributing papers and presentations to the Ontario Bar Association, and authoring or co-authoriing six legal texts. He also assisted with the preparation of the volume ” Receivers ” in the edition of LexisNexis Canada’s Halsbury’s Laws of Canada.

Paul S. Rand, B. Paul is now Senior Counsel at Royal Bank of Canada, where he has gained experience managing litigation, fraud investigations and legal issues pertaining to banking operations, and now advises the Capital Markets business. Multiple copy discounts. The Law of Fraud in Canada In The Law of Fraud in Canada, the authors have compiled, in a clear, concise format, the principles, doctrines and key statutes relevant to the law of civil and criminal fraud.

Van Kessel Author , Paul S.

National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking

Mondaq uses cookies on this website. By using our website you agree to our use of cookies as set out in our Privacy Policy. Except where otherwise noted, this paper is current as of November and provides preliminary information on Canadian and British Columbia legal matters to assist you in establishing a business in British Columbia and provides general guidance only.

On December 20 , the Supreme Court released its decision that the For the first time in Canadian criminal law, it is a crime to buy sexual.

To most people, it is essentially about control over what is known about them and by whom. Privacy protection laws in Canada focus mainly on safeguarding personal information. Thus, what one person views as an intolerable intrusion upon privacy may be acceptable to another. The Privacy Act governs the federal public sector. It obliges approximately federal government institutions to respect the privacy rights of individuals by limiting the collection, use and disclosure of their personal information.

The Privacy Act also gives individuals the right to request access to personal information about themselves held by federal government institutions. If individuals feel that the information is incorrect or incomplete, they also have the right to ask that it be corrected. PIPEDA, for its part, sets out ground rules for the management of personal information in the private sector.

This paper will provide an overview of the federal landscape with respect to privacy legislation, its legislative history, and the need for modernization at a time when technology, digitization, social media and concerns about national security and the threat of terrorism are rapidly transforming the way in which personal information is created, accessed, retained and discarded.

Concerns about the protection of personal information first arose in Canada during the late s and early s when computers were emerging as important tools for government and big business. In response to a federal government task force report on privacy and computers, 3 Canada enacted the first federal public sector privacy protection in Part IV of the Canadian Human Rights Act in This provision established the office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada as a member of the Canadian Human Rights Commission and provided the Privacy Commissioner with the mandate to receive complaints from the general public, conduct investigations and make recommendations to Parliament.

Arguably, the anti discrimination provisions of the Canadian Human Rights Act were not the best fit for the right to privacy, leaving a legislative gap that was addressed by the current Privacy Act and the Access to Information Act , 4 both of which came into force in

Ontario Women’s Justice Network

Cohabitating couples in British Columbia should start thinking about splitting debt and property and potentially paying out spousal support as the province rolls out new family laws. The updated legislation, which takes effect Monday, erases the line between marriage and common law partnerships in B. Couples who have lived together for more than two years will now have to evenly split family debt and anything purchased during their relationship, including property, in the event of a break-up.

Those who have a child together and have lived in a marriage-like relationship for less than two years are not included in the property division rules, but they may be entitled to receive spousal support. The changes were made to keep more families and couples out of court.

Canada’s End-Demand Laws Harm Sex Workers’ Safety, Health and Human Rights the Centre for Gender and Sexual Health Equity (CGSHE) published a new On December 20th , the Supreme Court of Canada in a.

There is evidence that knowledge about the Canadian health care system, including the rights of employees and patients, is a concern for ITDs. The following information is intended to give you an overview of the Canadian health care system, medicare the system of funding for health care services , how dentistry is regulated in Canada, and your rights as a dentist as well as the rights of your patients.

The Canadian health care system and the system of public funding i. The majority of the responsibility for health care planning and delivery, however, lies with the province and territories. Indeed, the current Canadian model of health care is decentralized and aims to respond to the context-specific issues associated with Canada’s expansive geography which consists of 10 provinces and 3 territories. The CHA is a piece of federal legislation consisting of five principles that set out the criteria and conditions to which health insurance plans throughout the country must conform in order to receive the full federal cash contribution under the Canada Health Transfer CHT Fard, It is important to understand that the CHA applies to the publicly funded components of health care services, the majority of these consisting of hospital and physician delivered care.

There is also a provision for private health care in Canada; indeed the delivery of health care in Canada has always been a mixture of public and private providers.

The Law of Fraud in Canada

The ideas and opinions in this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Governments. One of the most pressing human rights issues facing Canadians today is the high rate of sexual violence against women. While of personal concern to individual women given the profound physical, emotional, and mental repercussions, the predictability and patterning of sexual violence makes this an urgent social issue.

Sexual violence against women acts as a barrier to gender equality and stands in the way of human rights and fundamental freedoms Sinha, Yet, there is no clear sense of the range, severity and effects of the problem. Readers may recall statistics that as many as 1 in 3 women in Canada will experience sexual assault at some point over the course of their lives Government of Ontario, , and that sexual assault is one of the top five most common violent offences committed against women in Canada Sinha, ; however, population-based statistics such as these barely scratch the surface of this complex problem.

Among all types of law firms, Canadian women earned 93% of men’s salaries of doctoral graduates in , compared to % in and % in Most Women Lawyers In United States Law Firms Say Sexual.

Challenges to personal information protection in the digital economy. Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.

The environment in which personal information is collected, used and disclosed has undergone a dramatic reshaping since the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act PIPEDA was passed at the turn of the 21 st century. In that short period, the advances in computing power and storage, and the massive expansion in the scale of personal information that organizations can collect and store, use and disclose about individuals have combined to pave the way for an explosion in the role that personal information plays in the digital economy.

In some cases, their personal information is at risk of being stolen or lost because of lapses in appropriate security measures. Incentives are needed to ensure that organizations are building privacy protections into their products and services from the start. A stronger enforcement regime is one such incentive. PIPEDA is technology-neutral and principles-based — two qualities that should remain as these are strengths of the law. Footnote 1 The policy goal was to build trust in electronic commerce.

Footnote 2. The legislation applies to organizations that collect, use or disclose personal information in the course of commercial activities.

Sex, criminal law & HIV non-disclosure: What is wrong with Canada’s approach to HIV non-disclosure?